HISTORY OF ASIA HISTORY OF ASIA August of 1917 Japan was ready to reap her benefits of imperialism and she had her eyes on China. The exchange of the Lansing -Ishii Notes between the U.S. and Japan, this agreement granted territorial superiority of China to Japan. Japan interest in China mostly economic. The Japanese population was growing, cities were crowded, and consumer goods were scares and its standard of living extremely low.
A major earthquake also adds to Japans plight. Japan was a small island limited in natural resources and inhabitable space. The Japanese saw the turmoil in China as an opportunity to divide conquer and move in. Japan had been recognized as one of the Big Five powers and held a seat on the Council of the League of Nations. Japan had secured economic success during WWI.
Japan had large textile factories, submarines, and fleets. At the Washington Naval Conference Japan was angered at its ratio of ships. It blamed the outcome on the U.S. Japan did however agree to withdraw from Shantung, and from Siberia. The Great Depression ate away at Japans economic power unable to export silk, agricultural goods and limited goods were being imported.
Japan was looking to plant its people on foreign soil, Chinas soil. Japan felt it was treated unfair by the U.S. and Great Britain and eventually signed the Anti- Comintern Pact in 1937with Germany. Russia had already begin planting its Communist ideas in China, Japan needed an ally. By 1940 the United States had banned exports to Japan such as scrape metal and fuel. Japan leaders were worried they had been using reserves.
Japan invaded Dutch Indonesia and only received a small amount of fuel. Japan asks all British and American s to leave. On Dec 7, 1941 Japan attacked Pearl Harbor. The Pacific War could have been avoided if Japan and the United States had more open lines of communication. Japan made a lot of its foreign policy decision after the Washington Naval Conference that didnt improve her standing with United States or Britain. Mao tse-deng was leader and revolutionary strategist of the Chinese Communist revolution.
Growing up Mao had witnessed first hand experience of peasant mistreatment. Mao was a leader who was in touch with the people. His career begins in 1921 with the founding of the Chinese Communist Party, which met in Shanghai. The Party began with 50 members and by 1989 had risen to 48,000,000. Mao would use communist tactics, such as propaganda to organize peasant rebellion. During the Nationalist decade Mao was forced to escape from the KMT by hiding in the Jingang Mountains, where he and other leader developed guerilla tactics.
After escaping the encirclement at Jiang, Mao embarked upon the Long March. The Long March first purpose was to escape the KMT, but eventually turned campaign with Mao slogan “Go north to fight the Japanese”. Mao gained the title of chairman of the Politburo. The Long March gives insight to Mao excellent leadership and strategic abilities. Mao took advantage of every moment and used it towards the advancement of the CCP.
After the Long March Mao trained the Army and Party cadres, which allowed for a smooth, take over on1949. During the Communist Revolution Mao aimed at creating a new type of man, through thought control. He set up training periods first meeting in small groups and later in public to confess their guilt, repent, and become cleansed and new determination. The civil war ended in 1949 and the KMT was defeated. The CCP’s first form of government was the People’s Political Consultative Council founded in September 1949 with 662 delegates. The country was divided in to six regions, with a bureau of military and political authority.
Mao interest in the peasants welfare made land reform priority on the new governments list. The Agrarian Law of 1950 permitted a small cadre to carry on struggle meetings in villages to identify those people who had mistreated peasants. Once identified those persons would be parade before a Peoples Court. The accused were condemned, executed, reeducated or sent to labor camps. The government set up peasant association, which arranged the classification of land by productivity, the confiscation, and the redistribution those chosen to receive it. Landlords or rich peasant would have all or most of their land confiscated.
Middle peasant usually kept their land, the poor peasant and the landless farm laborers received an allotment of land. The average allotment given was one third of an acre. The land reform showed the crueler side of the CCP over two millions Chinese died in a five year period under the slave labor system and one and a half million were executed. The land reform was completed in early 1953 but thought control continued. At the cost of three and a half million lives land reforms were to improve the life of the poor and promote loyalty to the new government. Mao used thought reform to put China on one psychological base, away with “old ideas, habits, custom, and culture.” Several campaigns were organized the Three-Anti was used in 1951 to eliminate corruption, waste, and bureaucratism among those officials who were not Communist.
The Five Anti helped to expose businessmen and the bourgeoisie bribery, tax, defaulting, stealing state property, and benefit from state economic secrets. The Five Anti permitted the government to control a large amount of private business. All of society participated in reform. The Thought Reform movement of 1951 required 6,500 professors to take course under Professor Ai Siqi, leader in Chinese Communist Thought. His colleagues whom he would eventually teach Communist learning did not hold Siqi in high regard.
Religions reform was placed in the Christian churches it involved the Three- Self-movement: self-government, self-support and self-propagation. Art in literature were used to illustrate Chinas history of the people against their masters. No great emphasis was placed on this use. Mao was more concerned with reorienting the society as a whole. The 1950s Mao was using persuasion that included severe psychological pressures on individuals.
Mao used the systems of Self-criticism and criticism by others in small groups. Millions of Chinese were cut off from family and the old familiar. The transformation of these individuals was said to have cleansed them and gave them a new sense of liberation. The Constitution of 1954 gave more power to the central organs and less to non-Communist. It discontinued the six regional bureaus.
Congress transferred public opinion to those in charge. Communist Party controlled the government its official also held a government post. The Partys Central Committee had 187 members, the Politbur25, and its Standing Committee 7. Mass organizations opened roles for women youth cooperative workers. There was no open policy for membership to the Communist Party; it was a high privilege. Mao visited Moscow in 1949 and signs a 30-year Sino- with Russia for defense against Japan and the US. Russia gave China military aid and technician went to China to aid industrially and Chinese student received training in Russia. China paid for the aid given by Russia.